So You're Interested in Sous Vide cooking?!
Good for you! Sous vide can revolutionize how you work in the kitchen. It's probably not something that anyone needs; you can certainly get along without it. But it is an excellent option to have! Whether you appreciate perfectly done steak or just want an easy way to heat up leftovers, a sous vide machine (circulator or water oven) is an amazing kitchen tool.
It's not great for everything; sometimes you want the smell of the meat roasting in the oven. But for steaks, short ribs, chicken breast, salmon, pork butt, and other tough or lean cuts, it's hard to beat sous vide. The long cook time and precise temperature control allow you to get the exact results you want, whatever they may be.
And, sous vide has many other applications as well. So many, in fact, that if you cook every day, there's a good chance you'll use your sous vide at least a few times a week--plus, it can make some cooking tasks way easier.
And you thought it was just for steak. Not even close!
Why Sous Vide Cooking Is So Great
Perfect Results Every Time. The whole point of sous vide is that it holds food at a specific temperature. So if you like your steaks medium rare, set your sous vide temperature to 135 and pop the steaks in. They will never overcook, no matter how long you leave them in there.
This is why sous vide is used in so many restaurants. Sous vide can hold steaks, chicken breast, and other proteins at precisely the perfect temperature for a long time--several hours in fact. They just take the meat out of the water bath and give it a sear when a customer orders it. Perfect results every time.
Super, Super Easy. All you have to do is set the temp, fill a bag with food, and pop it in until it's done. Water bath temps are always included in sous vide recipes, as well as cooking times (just like other recipes). Giving meat a sear is the messiest part of sous vide cooking. But having no pans to clean (depending on how you sear) is definitely a plus.
Convenient. Sous vide cooking makes it easy to make perfect steaks, juicy chicken breasts and pork chops, and out-of-this-world leg of lamb, short ribs, pork butt, and salmon, not to mention easy yogurt, creme brulee, poached fruit, and succulent, crispy-yet-juicy vegetables. Whether you want to thaw meat quickly for a weeknight dinner or express your culinary creativity on a weekend project, sous vide makes it an easy process.
Freezer-to-Table in One Step. If you're in the habit of buying in bulk and freezing, add some seasonings and a bit of cooking oil to the freezer bag--then just throw it into the sous vide bath when you're ready to eat. Same goes for leftovers: just throw them in the sous vide to thaw or reheat in one easy step, with none of the worries inherent to microwave and oven reheating. (E.g., no burning or drying out--and you don't even have to keep an eye on it.)
Easy to Prepare in Advance and Warm Food Together. With sous vide cooking, you can do an entire dinner in advance. If it can be bagged, then it can be re-heated in a sous vide water bath.
This can be a huge bonus if you need to do a large meal such as a holiday dinner. Timing is often the hardest part of preparing a meal for a lot of people, and the Internet is full of ideas for cooks to work ahead, be efficient, and make sure all the food is hot and ready at the same time. Well, a sous vide circulator makes this easy.
You Can Cook Dark Meat and White Meat Separately. Another advantage to the sous vide approach to cooking poultry is that you can cook white meat and dark meat separately--which means an end to dry turkey breast. This has become more popular in recent years as cooks become more savvy, but if you haven't heard, here's why: white meat is done at around 140F, while dark meat has to cook to 160F. This is why breast meat on a traditionally roasted turkey is so often dry--of course it is; it's overcooked!
If you separate the meat (or even better, have your butcher do so for you), you can cook it to the perfect temperature and have juicy, succulent, perfect turkey.
But what about presentation? How is it still Thanksgiving if there isn't a glorious roasted bird to grace the table and evoke oohs and aahs from family and guests? And it's true: the presentation won't be the same. But with some creativity, you can come up with really neat ways to plate the bird. The simplest way is to carve the bird before you bring it to the table. Or you can present a whole breast surrounded by dark meat. Or you can do the legs and thighs confit and serve it as a first course, as in this Modernist Cuisine Thanksgiving Stew recipe. (Note: You don't have to include every component. You can make it your own.)
The point is, there are always ways to make a great presentation of sous vide turkey, as well as other sous vide food. In fact, the possibilities are endless.
Frees Up Stove and Burner Space for Other Things. As mentioned above, if you use your sous vide circulator for your proteins, then you've liberated your oven and stovetop. It's much easier to get all the courses done on time and in perfect condition.
So, What Exactly Is Sous Vide?
According to Wikipedia:
Sous-vide (French for "under vacuum") is a method of cooking in which food is sealed in airtight plastic bags, then placed in a water bath or in a temperature-controlled steam environment for longer than normal cooking times (usually 1 to 6 hours, up to 48 or more in some select cases) at an accurately regulated temperature much lower than normally used for cooking, typically around 55 to 60C (131 to 140F) for meat and higher for vegetables. The intent is to cook the item evenly, ensuring that the inside is properly cooked without overcooking the outside, and retain moisture.
...sealing the food in sturdy plastic bags keeps in juices and aroma that otherwise would be lost in the process.
Additionally, enclosed spices and flavorings added to the food item transmit their flavor more intensely than during normal cooking.
Sous vide has been around for a long time, first postulated as a cooking method a couple of hundred years ago. In the 1960s, it gained popularity in the industrial food industry--e.g., hospitals, schools, etc.--as an easy way to keep prepared food hot and ready to feed large groups. It wasn't until the mid-1970s that a chef recognized its potential for keeping meat succulent and flavorful. Sous vide began gaining popular attention when Modernist Cuisine was published early in 2011. Since then, dozens of new, low-cost immersion circulators and water ovens have been introduced to the market, bringing sous vide technology within reach of home cooks. (See our review of the best sous vide products for more information.)
Is Sous Vide Cooking Safe?
Yes, sous vide cooking is safe--with a caveat.
There is a certain range and time period during which food can become contaminated. That range is called the "danger zone," and it is between 40F and 131F; the time is 4 hours. In other words, if food is left between these temps for more than 4 hours, it's possible that it can develop pathogenic bacteria and may not be safe to eat.
Some proteins are best cooked below 131F. Salmon, for example, is considered medium rare at around 120F (and you don't want to go above 125F or so, or it will get tough).
And if you like your steak rare, you'll probably want to set your sous vide no higher than 125F.
As long as you're aware of this, and do not leave food in a water bath set below 131F for more than 4 hours, you'll be safe from pathogens.
Be careful, though, because it's easy to forget! Set a timer to make sure you don't go over the 4 hour limit--and if you want to be extra safe, keep it below 2 hours.
Why a Sous Vide Circulator? What About a Water Oven?
The sous vide circulator and the water oven are both sous vide cooking methods. My prefer the immersion circulator for a few reasons. First of all is the circulating aspect: most water ovens don't have a circulator (although the Tribest Sousvant is an exception to this), so they are more prone to hot and cold spots and take longer for water temperature to equilibrate. We also like that the immersion circulator is more portable and easier to store when it's not being used.
Sous vide circulators also tend to be cheaper than water ovens. You can find water ovens now for around the same price as circulators, but the quality isn't comparable. That is, for about $150, you can get a top-notch immersion circulator or an adequate water oven. To get a high quality oven, you have to spend a couple of hundred dollars more.
If a water oven fits better into your lifestyle and cooking style, by all means go that route. People who have them love them.
Are There Any Disadvantages to Cooking With a Sous Vide Circulator or Water Oven?
Yes, there are some disadvantages to sous vide cooking, just as there are for all cooking methods. Here are a few:
- Plastic: you go through a lot of plastic bags. Bags can be re-used a few times if you wash and dry them carefully. There are other ways to minimize plastic use as well: see our article 6 Ways to Minimize Plastic Use with Sous Vide. But even at a minimum amount of use, plastic and sous vide go hand in hand.
- You might miss the smell of roasting meat. The aroma of roasting meat permeating the house on a Sunday afternoon is part of the enjoyment of Sunday dinner for me, so you may not always choose to use sous vide, even when you can. Yet even when you roast meat in the oven, you can still use sous vide for side dishes.
- As far as cooking meat--which is where sous vide truly shines--you need a method of browning. See below for a discussion of this.
- And of course, there is the initial expense of getting into sous vide cooking. See below for guidelines on just how much this will run.
How About Searing the Meat? Isn't that a Hassle?
It's true there's another step in cooking meat sous vide: you have to brown it. Even so, this doesn't add a lot of work to the process. If you do it right, you don't even have to dirty a pan.
Here are the ways you can brown meat:
- Sear it in a pan
- Put in under the broiler
- Give it a couple of minutes per side on a smoking hot grill
- Use a torch
- Deep fry it.
The torch or grill methods are both easy, and don't dirty an extra pan. Both are simple and effective, and they don't dirty a frying pan. For torching, you just need to place the meat on a baking sheet or other flame-proof surface and torch away, flipping once or twice so as to get all the surfaces browned. It's best to use a rack of some sort to help the flame reach more spots and also to prevent the baking sheet from getting too hot.
A grill is even easier, especially if it's gas--and you don't have to get a single pan dirty!
Do I Need a Vacuum Sealer for Sous Vide Cooking?
Back when sous vide first began gaining popularity with home cooks, the idea of using Ziploc bags was unheard of. However, Modernist Cuisine at Home and other groups that were invested in putting sous vide technology in reach of the home cook have created many recipes and techniques that use Ziploc bags. Rather than sealing food in a vacuum bag, you use the "water displacement" method, lowering the bag slowly into the water so air is pushed out the top of the bag. Then you seal the bag or hang the edge over the side and clip it to the cooking vessel.
This is an effective sous vide method, so the technical answer is that no, you do not need a vacuum sealer in order to cook sous vide. But why would you not want a vacuum sealer? They're a fantastic addition to any kitchen, and not just for sous vide. They make it possible to buy food in bulk and freeze, they extend the life of food up to 5 times of that in non-vacuum storage containers, they eliminate freezer burn, and they can save you a lot of money on food waste. (See our article about vacuum sealers for more information.)
In fact, if you had to choose between getting a vacuum sealer and getting a sous vide immersion circulator (or water oven), you should get the vacuum sealer first. It's that great of a kitchen tool.
So you don't need a vacuum sealer. But, please, do yourself a favor and get one. You will not regret it.
Okay, I'm Convinced. So, What Do I Need to Get Started with a Sous Vide Circulator?
We've put together a few lists that will give you an idea of the infrastructure you'll need (or want) to get started in sous vide cooking. First we give a "best value" list, which is the cheapest route. Then we give a "spare no expense" list, which includes some top-end options that will make sous vide cooking a joy. These lists are, of course, fluid: you can pick and choose what you want. This just gives you an idea of the myriad options out there to select from, and how much you'll have to spend.
Really, because you can use zippered bags to sous vide, all you really need is a circulator, assuming you already have bags, a stockpot, and a pan, broiler, or grill to sear your meat. But if you want to do it really well and have the most fun (in Rational Kitchen's opinion, anyway), these are your bare-bone basics.
The Best Value List
For about $300, you can have an excellent sous vide setup, including a torch to sear your proteins, a vacuum sealer, and a large supply of bags. NOTE: These are not exact prices. Prices may be higher or lower when you check them on Amazon.
Best Value Sous Vide List
Bags (You'll get some bags with your sealer, but buy more immediately)
Grand Total (approx):
Note that this includes a large supply of bags for your vacuum sealer, too.
The Spare No Expense List
For about $1500, you can have a near-restaurant-quality sous vide setup, including a torch to sear your proteins. NOTE: These are not exact prices. Prices may be higher or lower when you check them on Amazon.
Spare No Expense Sous Vide List
Grand Total (approx.):
Extras--Not Necessary But Nice to Have
These are some extras that are nice to have, but not necessary. For example, a dedicated container is great--but the truth is that you can use any pot, or a big cooler if you're doing a lot of items. And for long cooks, you can cover the container with aluminum foil, plastic wrap, even a towel would work. And while you certainly don't need to own the Modernist Cuisine boxed set, it will make sous vide cooking, as well as many other kitchen tasks, a huge amount of fun, as well as provide scientific basics of cooking that you won't find anywhere else.
As for the rack: to be honest, I've never used one. They're more important for water ovens that don't have a circulator. But if you're going to be doing several bags at once, it might be nice to make sure they're all getting good, even circulation. (And if you do get a rack, make sure it fits in your preferred sous vide container.)
NOTE: These are not exact prices. Prices may be higher or lower when you check them on Amazon.
Extra Items--Not Necessary But Nice to Have
Sous vide is a great addition to most kitchens, offering convenience as well as precision. You can get a sous vide setup going for just a couple of hundred dollars, or you can go all out and get the high-end equipment.